ACTUALIZATION OF EVALUATION IN COGNITIVE-COMMUNICATIVE FIELD
Ключові слова:frame, evaluation, evaluative utterance, sender, recipient, cognitive-communicative field.
The paper targets at lingual means of actualizing frame-scripts’ evaluative potential. The article pursues a number of objectives: the study of realization of the structure of evaluative utterances in the frame; identification of functional-semantic features of this realization. The term “frame” is used primarily for the characterization of such structures of consciousness, which are formed for displaying situations in object-human cognitive activity. Frame is a declarative way of knowledge representation, which is formulated in terms of descriptions
and is a bundle of knowledge about a particular area of human activity, on the ontology of the world, the human representation of the system, thematically related to one picture, one act and one script. Such understanding of the frame gives grounds to speak of it as a definitely organized system (set) of propositions which schematize corresponding denotative situations, that is, as a minimum informative block. Therefore, the frame can be called
the cognitive-communicative field, or communicative frame. Formation of the frame as the specific structure of consciousness, corresponding to the representation of the event, has an ontological basis. The logical analysis of concepts, which provides for the establishment of the laws of its internal organization in order to identify its components and modeling their interactions, confirms the notion of the frame as a stereotypical situation.
As far as the person’s life-world is made up of many situations, their language and speech fixation needs the combination of situations into the utterances. Thus, the evaluative utterance is the product of a certain reflection pattern, scene, or a script in the communicative act. In accordance with socio-role status relationships
between participants of communication are spread mainly in the social sphere of communication, where social role reflects interactional conditions between the subject of communicative action and its object. According to some linguists, conditions of social interaction between communicants are based on three types of relations —
equality, subordination and dominance, which are implemented in the familiar, unconstrained, neutral and elevated communication (speech) registers. Communicative role as a kind of invariant unit of behavior, is a part of the general scheme of activities and is related to relevant normative expectations, which may be shown by the communicants in a given communicative and particular social situations. Every act of communication is characterized by the definite form of interaction, which is based on its correlation with the situation-type, which is the frame with the features and functional conditions inherent to it. Frame structure can be regarded as an independent configuration consisting of a core, a set of standard forms of speech acts, participants of speech event. In addition to these components, an important role belongs to the objective, plan and consequent. Thus, the evaluative situation can be attributed to the frame, as it includes evaluation of the phenomena of the outer world and illustrates the continuity of images of the object and the subject, objectified in the system parts of speech, as well as all the constituents of utterances that make up the situation. Considering the above
stated, the cognitive-communicative field of evaluative situation can be represented as hyperframe of verbal
interaction, which displays all components of the frame in their interconnection and interdependence, which allows to determine the sequence of the constituents of data in the process of updating and predetermine the appearance of certain actions that characterize the core of the frame structure in functional and semantic aspects. An important component of the mechanism of formation of the evaluative utterance is a cognitive factor. On the one hand, it helps to conceptualize the relations between situations of extralinguistic reality (sender’s perspective), and on the other hand, it serves as a specific signal for the process of the mental perception of text (recipient’s perspective). Thus, participants of interaction use are general schemes of encoding and decoding of information that is contained in the utterance.
Consequently, the actualized structure of the evaluative utterance is connected with the realization of the frame structure of a typical act of communication in the form of a holistic multi-level formation — functional-semantic representation. Actualization of a frame structure takes place on the background of social interaction, where the functional-semantic representation of the evaluative frame is promoted by implementing in its structure such items as the illocutionary act-event, topical proposition and typical grammatical construction. As a result, there is a picture of interconnected and interdependent in their development concepts — from parts of the utterance — to all evaluative utterance, which is the core of the cognitive-communicative field of interaction.
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